- What is a Geometric Series?
- Sum of a Convergent Geometric Series
- Rth Moment
Related article: Finite Geometric sequences.
A geometric series is one where every two successive terms have the same ratio. Once a common factor is removed from the series, you end up with a value raised to a series of consecutive powers. This type of series have important applications in many fields, including economics, computer science, and physics.
An infinite series is the description of an operation where infinitely many quantities, one after another, are added to a given starting quantity. Any geometric series can be written as
a + ar + ar2 + ar3 + …
where a is the initial term (also called the leading term) and r is the ratio that is constant between terms. We call this ratio the common ratio.
A geometric series can either be finite or infinite.
- A finite series converges on a number. For example, 1/2 + 1/4 + 1/8…converges (i.e. settles on) on 1.
- An infinite geometric series does not converge on a number. For example, 10 + 20 + 20… does not converge (it just keeps on getting bigger).
A finite geometric series has a set number of terms. For example, instead of having an infinite number of terms, it might have 10, 20, or 99. As long as there’s a set end to the series, then it’s finite. For example, all of the following are finite geometric series:
|Geometric Series||Starting Term (a)||Ratio (r)||Number of terms (n)|
|2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + 32||2||2||5|
|2 – 20 + 200 – 2000||3||-10||4|
is an infinite geometric series. The “…” at the end of the series means that this particular series goes on to infinity. Each term is equal to the previous term times a constant, the common ratio. Since this common ratio is ½, we know this series converges, and we know it will approach (½)/(1 – ½) = 1 as the number of terms goes to infinity.
Another example of a this type of series is
2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + 32 + …,
Here again each term is equal to the previous term times a constant, so we know our series is geometric. The constant, 2, is greater than 1, so the series will diverge.
The sum of a convergent geometric series can be calculated with the formula a⁄1 – r, where “a” is the first term in the series and “r” is the number getting raised to a power. A geometric series converges if the r-value (i.e. the number getting raised to a power) is between -1 and 1.
A geometric series
converges if and only if the absolute value of the common ratio, |r|, is less than 1. As a formula, that’s if:
0 < | r | < 1
Where r is the common ratio.
In this case, the series will approach a / (1 – r).
If r is greater or equal to 1, the series diverges. As a formula, that’s if:
| r | ≥ 1
In general, computing the sums of series in calculus is extremely difficult and is beyond the scope of a calculus II course. However, the geometric series is an exception.
Watch the video for two examples, or read on below:
Sum of a Convergent Geometric Series: Example
Step 2: Confirm that the series actually converges. The r-value for this particular series ( 1⁄5) is between -1 and 1 so the series does converge.
Step 3: Find the first term. Get the first term is obtained by plugging the bottom “n” value from the summation. The bottom n-value is 0, so the first term in the series will be (1⁄5)0.
Step 4: Set up the formula to calculate the sum of the geometric series, a⁄1-r. “a” is the first term you calculated in Step 3 and “r” is the r-value from Step 1:
The sum of this particular geometric series is 5⁄4
A “rth moment” refers to the following geometric series:
The rth moment = (x1r + x2r + x3r +… + xnr) / n.
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