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How to Find the Sum of a Series

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The sum of a series is the total the list of numbers add up to. If the sum of a series exists, it will be a single number, like 0, 1, or 99.

In most cases, it isn’t possible to calculate the exact sum of a series. In fact, it is extremely challenging to know the exact sum of most infinite series. However, there are a couple of exceptions [1]:


  1. The geometric series:
    how to find the sum of a series
  2. The telescoping series: how to find the sum of a series 2

For other series, a little legwork is involved. A first step is to use a computer to see where the sum might be headed. You could try the first thousand terms, of the first 10,000 terms (or use one of the various calculators you can find online!). This might work well if you have computer and patience, but it won’t tell you if the solution you get is the “best.”

How to Find the Sum of a Series with Partial Sums

You can estimate the sum of a series with partial sums. If the limit of an infinite series exists and is finite, that limit is also the sum of an infinite series. So, if we find the limit of its sequence of partial sums, we can find the sum of a series. The idea is that you can find the sum of the series as a whole by finding the sum of small “partial” pieces of the sum. The more parts you include, the closer you get to the limit of the sequence of partial sums. Like the “adding up terms” approach outlined above, this isn’t always a very practical approach. A better way is to use partial sums in conjunction with the integral test and remainder theorem.[2]

In order to use this method, first run the integral test and verify that the series converges. The test will give you a remainder value, which represents the error when approximating the infinite summation of series to the nth partial sum. The remainder, Rn is the difference between the true sum of the series and the one you get with n partial sums:
how to find the sum of a series 3

The more partial sums you use, the better the approximation and the smaller the remainder. This means that this is a nonincreasing function, which can be described by integrals shown in the following graphs:
remainder integral test

The result is the remainder theorem [2]:
remainder theorem

The theorem is valid for a series that converges by the integral test, with the remainder
Rn = S – sn, where:

  • S is the sum of the series
  • sn is the sum obtained with partial sums.

Adding sn to both sides of the equality gives:
remainder theorem 2

Note: Use caution when interpreting convergence tests. Not all convergence tests help you find the sum of a series. For example, the root test and ratio test involve taking a limit. While they can tell you something about convergence, they say nothing about the value of the sum [3].

How to Find the Sum of a Series: Example

Example question: Estimate the sum of the following series with the 10th partial sum:
find the sum of this series 2

Step 1: Run the integral test to confirm convergence. This function passes that test.

Step 2: Apply the Remainder Theorem:
remainder theorem for 10th partial sum

Adding s10 to each side gives:
adding s10 to both sides

Where the tenth partial sum is:
10th partial sum

Step 3: Use the information from Step 2 to estimate S, which is going to be the mean of the upper and lower bounds:
estimating the sum



References

[1] Heap, A. Series Summary. https://www.geneseo.edu/~heap/courses/222/series_review.pdf
[2] Maslanka, D. The Integral Test and Remainder Theorem.
http://mypages.iit.edu/~maslanka/LN7.pdf
[3] Foy, C. (2013). Situation 1. Retrieved August 18, 2021 from: http://jwilson.coe.uga.edu/EMAT6500/ClassSit/Foy/situation1.pdf

CITE THIS AS:
Stephanie Glen. "How to Find the Sum of a Series" From CalculusHowTo.com: Calculus for the rest of us! https://www.calculushowto.com/how-to-find-the-sum-of-a-series/
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